State report card

The report card for each state contains the scores it received when we evaluated it for how well it protects patients against sexually abusive doctors. The overall rating is the average of the score the state received in each category. In states with two medical boards, one for osteopathic physicians and the other for medical doctors, the overall rating is based on an average of each board’s scores.

Click on the boxes below to read how Ohio did on each category — and how we calculated the score for the categories.


State rating (out of 100)

  • Board composition: 60
    Are consumer members included to balance physicians’ tendency to identify with their colleagues? More...
    A blueprint developed by The Federation of State Medical Boards recognized the importance of having independent public members on physician-dominated medical regulatory agencies. To assess the composition of disciplinary agencies, the AJC used three measures, with the most weight given to consumer representation. Top grades went to states where public members make up at least 40 percent of the board; where those members represent consumers and where neither they nor their family members have professional or financial ties to health care; and where women hold at least 40 percent of the board seats.
  • Criminal acts: 44
    Are medical regulators and law enforcement made aware of doctors’ criminal conduct? More...
    The medical profession has long recognized the power imbalance between doctors and patients. But only in recent years have states enacted three key laws to try to protect vulnerable patients from dangerous doctors. The AJC considered two of these laws the most important. Top grades went to states where physicians must undergo criminal background checks, with fingerprints, at initial license application and periodically; and where doctor-patient sexual contact has been made a criminal offense in recognition that patients cannot give meaningful consent. In addition, the AJC also rated states on whether medical boards that learn of allegations of criminal conduct must alert law enforcement.
    • Has the state criminalized sexual misconduct involving doctors and patients?: 16 of 40
      A mental health professional is guilty of sexual battery if he induces a client or patient to submit to sexual contact by falsely representing it is for mental health treatment purposes. A mental health professional is guilty of sexual imposition if he induces a client or patient to submit by falsely representing that the sexual contact is necessary for mental health treatment purposes.
  • Discipline laws: 68
    Do state laws strengthen oversight and discipline of problem physicians? More...
    Abusive physicians can be protected by laws that limit regulators’ ability to investigate cases and don’t require permanent revocation of doctor licenses for egregious offenses. To assess the legal environment for doctor discipline, the AJC examined four key laws. Top grades went to states that require permanent revocation of doctor licenses for some violations; where physicians who have been convicted of felonies or who have lost their licenses in other states cannot be licensed; where medical regulators are entitled to records and other proceedings of hospital peer review committees that examine doctor misconduct; and where there is a reasonable standard of proof required for disciplinary action against physicians, especially in sexual misconduct cases where there may be no independent witnesses.
    • Does state law require revocation for some violations? Can revocation be permanent?: 23 of 25
      Revocation can be permanent. In addition, a doctor's license is automatically suspended for conviction of certain crimes, including rape, sexual battery and gross sexual imposition. If the doctor then fails to request a hearing, the board must permanently revoke the license. The board's guidelines call for permanent revocation for those who administer any drug in exchange for sexual favors.

More from Ohio

Highlighted case

Dr. James Kegler

By 1997, while Kegler's license was under suspension following a conviction on a drug-related charge, allegations emerged that the family doctor had sexually assaulted two patients during exams.

The board deemed one patient not credible because she had a felony charge pending, and while a hearing examiner deemed the other witness credible, some board members disagreed and dismissed the allegations.

So, in 1999, Ohio reinstated his license, allowing him to practice under restrictions the board set.

In 2006, he was accused of sexually assaulting at least seven female patients.

After a bench trial, he was convicted of two counts of gross sexual imposition involving two patients and was sentenced to 18 months in prison. He died in 2014.

Researching a doctor

  • Accurate records of sexual abuse accusations against doctors are not always easily accessible. In the summer of 2016, the state of Ohio was transitioning to a new licensure system, and online search results have been spotty. Please note that license search results typically include all public disciplinary actions, not just those involving sexual misconduct, and can sometimes include vague language. Also, some states deal with some disciplinary issues privately; private board orders are not included.

Complaint process

The board investigates anonymous complaints. It also has the authority to conduct undercover investigations. The board's website says that it is required by state law to maintain confidentiality of all information related to its investigations, and that it will not identify the person filing the complaint without first obtaining permission.

Where to file a complaint


“I couldn’t believe it myself. I didn’t expect anybody else to. And I feared no other doctor would see me.”

—A victim of Dr. Daniel M. Moshos, explaining why she didn’t initially report he had sexually assaulted her. Moshos was convicted in 2009 of public indecency, attempted rape and gross sexual imposition.

Key fact

While Ohio provides the public with some of the most detailed board orders describing doctor sexual misconduct, in some cases where doctors surrender their licenses there is scant information. In one case, Ohio shows only that the doctor had surrendered his license, but a reciprocal order in another state shows he had been arrested for a sexual assault on a 15-year-old boy. Also, see how our reporting found how police and patients in the town of Wilmington teamed up to bring a sexually abusive doctor to justice.

  1. Click here to find your state!